April 29, 2009

Richard Sibbes (1577–1635) on God Begging

In a word, being to bring Christ and the church together, our aim must be, to persuade people to come out of their estate they are in, to come and take Christ. Whatsoever makes for this, that course we must use, though it be with never so much abasing of ourselves. Therefore the gospel is promulgated in a sweet manner. 'I beseech you, brethren, by the mercies of God,' &c. The law comes with 'Cursed, cursed;' but now in the gospel Christ is preached with sweet alluring. 'I beseech you, brethren,' and 'We as ambassadors beseech you, as if Christ by us did beseech you,' &c., 2 Cor. v. 20. This is the manner of the dispensation in the gospel, even to beg of people that they would be good to their own souls. Christ, as it were, became a beggar himself, and the great God of heaven and earth begs our love, that we would so care for our own souls that we would be reconciled unto him. It was fitter, indeed, that we should beg of him. It was fit we should seek to be reconciled to him, but God so stoops in the dispensation and ministry of the gospel, that he becomes a beggar and suitor to us to be good to our souls. As if he had offended us, he desires us to be reconciled. The wrong is done on our part, yet he so far transcends the doubtings of man's nature, that he would have nothing to cause man's heart to misgive, no doubts or scruples to arise. He himself becomes a beseecher of reconciliation, as if he were the party that had offended. This is the manner of the publication of the gospel.
Richard Sibbes, "The Fountain Opened," in The Complete Works of Richard Sibbes (Edinburgh: James Nichol, 1863), 5:506–507.

This aspect is the actual manner in which they [the Puritans] addressed the Gospel to unbelievers in their preaching. How did they offer the Gospel to the unconverted? I avoid the word 'present' the Gospel. They did not merely 'present' the Gospel, they entreated, they besought, they reasoned, they urged and they offered the Gospel. Some are disposed to contend that the word 'offer' is unsuitable as it implies creature ability or gives the impression that God is less than omnipotent to change hearts. Others say the word does not mean now what it meant in Puritan days. But Richard Sibbes uses a word indicating a condescension stooping lower than any such meaning implied by the word 'offer' which word I would contend has not changed. On II Cor. 5:20 Sibbes declares, 'This is the manner of the dispensation in the gospel, even to beg of people that they would be good to their souls. Christ, as it were, became a beggar himself, and the great God of heaven and earth begs our love, that we would so care for our souls that we would be reconciled unto him' (italics mine).

Credit to Barry Wallace

April 28, 2009

Phil Johnson vs. John MacArthur (and Many Others) on 'God Begging'

Around the beginning of 2007, there was some controversy over a 15-minute evangelistic video called "Just Stop and Think," featuring Pastor Francis Chan.

One of the controversial points in the video is when Chan uses the illustration of God begging sinners to accept his proposal (around min. 12:10–12:15 into the video).

This, of course, was entirely unacceptable to James White and many others that orbit around him (such as Micah Burke, who contributes to White's blog page). After all, they don't even accept the fact that God desires the salvation of all men in His revealed will. One of White's other friends (Carla Rolfe), who is very ignorant of the history and theology of Calvinism (and one who used to be a Gillite hyper-Calvinist in the early 2000's), chimed in about the video and said:
The only time I have ever heard anyone say that God begs for anyone to do anything, is when I was in a 100% Arminian church. God doesn't beg anyone to do anything, He commands all men everywhere to repent. [notice her false dichotomy]
Though Phil Johnson did not agree with all of White's criticisms of Chan's presentation of the gospel, he did side with White against Chan's use of the illustration of God begging sinners to come to him. Phil said:
He [James White] is (rightly) concerned about people who run too far with the notion of imploring sinners to be reconciled to God (2 Corinthians 5) and who imagine that this justifies the ridiculous imagery of God on his knees, begging sinners to have a relationship with Him. Remember: I already said I don't like that aspect of the video, either.
I searched for sources on the Internet on the subject of God begging, and I quickly found that both Charles Spurgeon (one of Phil's heroes of the faith) and Samuel Rutherford (a Westminster divine) used the illustration. James White, in his typical fashion, mocked me on his Dividing Line program for engaging in these searches. Since that time I have continued my searches into Puritan and Calvinistic literature on the subject. I discovered that even John MacArthur (Phil's own pastor) used the illustration in an interview with Phil Johnson. The transcript reads as follows:
PHIL: Second Corinthians 5 gives us the duties ambassadors to plead with people to be reconciled with God.

JOHN: Yep, we are to beg them, be reconciled to God, as it says, though God were begging through you. That’s exactly the language there. As though God were begging through you, be reconciled to God, go into all the world, preach the gospel to every creature, make disciples of all the nations. We have the responsibility to take the gospel to the ends of the earth to every creature.
Notice that MacArthur not only believes that God is begging through us, but he believes that it is "exactly the [inspired] language there" in 2 Cor. 5:20. He says the same thing about that verse [i.e. "literally, 'begging them'"] in his article on "Having an Eternally Right Relationship with God," in Think Biblically!: Recovering a Christian Worldview, ed. John MacArthur (Good News Publishers, 2003), 108. So then, MacArthur is not merely saying that he believes God is begging sinners, but he believes the Apostle Paul himself uses that kind of language. If MacArthur is correct, then Phil Johnson has not only called MacArthur's beliefs and imagery on this subject "ridiculous," but he has also unwittingly implied that the Apostle Paul's inspired language is "ridiculous" as well.

Not only that, but he has also, by implication, said that the imagery of the following men within the Augustinian tradition (who use the metaphor of God begging) is "ridiculous":

Augustine (Early Church Father), Hugh Latimer (Early English Reformer), Isaac Ambrose (Puritan), Daniel Burgess (Puritan), Jeremiah Burroughs (Westminster divine), Richard Baxter (Puritan), Joseph Caryl (Westminster divine), Thomas Case (Puritan), Stephen Charnock (Puritan), John Collinges (Puritan), John Flavel (Puritan), Theophilus Gale (Puritan), William Gearing (Puritan), Andrew Gray (Puritan), William Gurnall (Puritan), Robert Harris (Westminster divine), Obadiah Sedgwick (Westminster divine), Thomas Larkham (Puritan), Thomas Manton (Puritan), John Murcot (Puritan), George Newton (Puritan), Nathaniel Heywood (Puritan), Anthony Palmer (Puritan), Edward Reynolds (Westminster divine), John Richardson (Puritan), Samuel Rutherford (Westminster divine), John Shower (Puritan), Richard Sibbes (Puritan), Sydrach Simpson (Westminster divine), William Strong (Westminster divine), George Swinnock (Puritan), John Trapp (Puritan), Ralph Venning (Puritan), Nathaniel Vincent (Puritan), Thomas Watson (Puritan), Daniel Williams (Puritan), Samuel Willard, Benjamin Wadsworth, George Whitefield, Jonathan Edwards, Solomon Stoddard, Samuel Davies, Ralph Erskine, Charles Spurgeon, Thomas Chalmers, Walter Chantry, Erroll Hulse, John MacArthur and Fred Zaspel.

I have documented the exact words of all of these men HERE (click) in context.

We would invite Phil to reconsider his position.

Update on 9-18-14:

In light of my historical sources on God (and Christ through His preachers) begging in the Augustinian and Reformed tradition, consider these words by the hyper-Calvinist David Engelsma:
An 'offer-man,' if he is consistent, must beg sinners, and this disgraceful practice abounds today. It is revolting to anyone who has caught a glimpse of the majesty of God, the excellent glory of the risen Jesus, and the sovereignty of grace to hear the 'offer-men' begging recalcitrant sinners please to accept Jesus and come to the front.
David Engelsma, Hyper-Calvinism & the Call of the Gospel (Grand Rapids: Reformed Free Publishing Association, 1994), 86–87.

Years ago, in 2007, when Phil Johnson and James White were objecting to Francis Chan using "God begging" language in his "Just Stop and Think" evangelistic appeal, they were unknowingly siding with Engelsma on that particular subject, and not with mainstream Puritan thought.

On November 10th, 2009, Tom Ascol approvingly tweeted this quote by John Stott:
It is not enough to expound a thoroughly orthodox doctrine of reconciliation if we never beg people to come to Christ.
John Stott, The Cross of Christ (Downers Grove, IL: IVP, 1986), 201.

Update on 2-3-2020:

MacArthur recently wrote:
Nevertheless, the gospel message includes an open invitation—a general call to faith—that is extended indiscriminately to all who come under the sound of the message. In fact, Paul uses much stronger words than call or invitation. He says it is “as though God were pleading through us: we implore you on Christ’s behalf, be reconciled to God” (2 Cor. 5:20).

The Greek word translated “pleading” is [from] parakaleo. It speaks of an exhortation, admonishment, or entreaty. The word translated “implore” (deomai) is stronger yet. It has the connotation of begging. It is a common word in Scripture, often used to describe passionate prayer. It is the same word used by the father of a demon-possessed boy in Luke 9:38, pleading with Jesus for help: “Teacher, I beg You to look at my son” (NASB).

That is the proper tone of the gospel’s invitation, what Paul refers to as “the word of reconciliation” (2 Cor. 5:19). This is how God commissions His ambassadors to preach: “We beg you on behalf of Christ, be reconciled to God” (v. 20 NASB). It is not a dispassionate suggestion, or even a stern command. It is an earnest, urgent plea extended with God’s own authority, tenderly entreating the sinner to respond with repentant faith.
---page 86 begins here---
It is the duty of every believer to make this message known to the world. God “has given us the ministry of reconciliation” (v. 18). That is why it is crucial for Christians to understand the gospel correctly and be able to present it clearly and persuasively. God has commissioned us as His ambassadors not only to proclaim the fact “that God was in Christ reconciling the world to Himself, not imputing their trespasses to them” (v. 19); but also to be persistent with the appeal to “be reconciled to God” (v. 20). In this capacity we are “ambassadors for Christ,” speaking “on Christ’s behalf” and “as though God were pleading through us.”
John MacArthur, The Gospel According to Paul: Embracing the Good News at the Heart of Paul’s Teachings (Nashville, TN: Thomas Nelson, 2017), 85–86.

Jean Daillé (1594–1670) on Amyraut's Theses

It is interesting to note that Daillé defended Amyraut in a letter which he wrote, presumably around the middle of the year 1635, to one of Amyraut's students at the academy of Saumur. This student had apparently become unsure of things as a result of the criticism directed against Amyraut. At the very beginning of his letter to the student Daillé asserted: "As regards the theses and the book of Amyraut [Brief traitté de la prestination]: it is foolish for people to be suspicious of his teaching and to find fault with it, for in my opinion it is neither false, nor dangerous, nor new." At the end of this rather extensive letter Daillé called upon the student to defend the good name of his teacher "against the loose talk of those who do not know him." Daillé also showed astonishment over the fact that what was now being held against Amyraut had earlier been permitted to pass in the case of Cameron.
Frans Pieter Van Stam, The Controversy Over the Theology of Saumur, 1635-1650 (Amsterdam: APA-Holland University Press, 1988), 38.

Dating the Saumur Controversy

In September, 1634, Moyse Amyraut published his Brief traitté de la prestination, a little volume that was destined in the years following to stir up a lot of dust. In view of the date of this publication the beginning of the controversy could therefore be pinpointed in the month of September, 1634.

It is more correct, however, to date it in 1635, for it was in the course of that year that the first criticisms of Amyraut's book came out. It needs to be mentioned here that as early as the beginning of 1633 serious objections were raised against a book of Paul Testard, a preacher in the French city of Blois. This volume contained the same ideas advanced in Amyraut's book. However, criticism of Testard's book was too incidental a phenomenon to date the conflict surrounding the theology of Saumur by its appearance. The situation is rather that the criticism of Amyraut's theology re-activated the existing criticism of Testard's book. Amyraut's critics took it ill of him, among other things, that he had published the book in French, thus making it accessible to many people. Also, whereas Testard's book was written in Latin and was full of technical jargon, Amyraut's work was written popularly. Another reason for not dating the beginning of the conflict in 1633 is that, after the National Synod of Alençon in 1637, the Amyraut-conflict remained alive but Testard was hardly mentioned anymore.

The end of the conflict can be put in 1650. An official accord was struck between the representatives of the various parties to the conflict in October of the preceding year, but for a number of months afterwards it was still doubtful whether it would hold. In the course of 1650, however, there was an evident readiness among those who had opposed each other previously to regard the conflict as settled.
Frans Pieter Van Stam, The Controversy Over the Theology of Saumur, 1635-1650 (APA-Holland University Press, 1988), 22–23.

April 26, 2009

From Iain Murray's Correspondence with David Engelsma on the Free Offer

In Iain Murray's correspondence with David Engelsma (a Hoeksemian hyper-Calvinist in the Protestant Reformed Church) on the free offer of the gospel, he wrote that:
The critical issure here, of course, is not the mere use of the term 'offer', but whether the offer of the gospel is an expression of God's desire that it should be received by sinners.
See Banner of Truth 307 (December 1995): 24-25.

To put it more exactly so that none can evade, the free offer of the gospel is an expression of God's desire that sinners receive it. Murray is not saying that it is merely the case that God desires that sinners be under an obligation to receive it, but that He desires that they comply with and benefit from (through repentance and faith) what is offered in the gospel. This is a subtle difference, but even the Puritan John Howe had to deal with this subtlety long ago (click).

April 20, 2009

Stephen Charnock (1628–1680) Referencing Amyraut

Stephen Charnock cites John 1:29 and then references Amyraut's writings for a proper understanding of "takes away the sin of the World."

Stephen Charnock, "A Discourse of Christ Our Passover," in The Works of Stephen Charnock (Edinburgh: Banner of Truth, 1985), 4:507.

If number of citations are any indication it would appear the School of Saumur in France made the largest impression on Charnock next to puritanism. In his Works he cited Moise Amyraut 130 times and Jean Daille 79 times. The next largest number of citations of anyone not affiliated with the School of Saumur was the Roman Catholic Francisco Suarez with 44 and Johannes Cocceius 33 times. From the School of Saumur and those affiliated with it he referred to Amyraut, Daille, Louis Cappel, Jean Mestrezat, John Cameron, Paul Testard, Michel Le Faucheur, Josue de Place (Placeus) and the Theses Salmuriensis a total of 254 times... After the ejection Charnock visited France for an extended period and brought back the French reformers' books as well as their ideas.
Larry Daniel Siekawitch, Stephen Charnonck's Doctrine of the Knowledge of God: A Case Study of the Balance of Head and Heart in Restoration Puritanism (PhD diss., University of Wales, Bangor, 2007), 70.

These stats argue against the broad brushing of Beeke and/or Jones who say without careful qualification that the “Puritans also opposed the views of the Amyraldians and their hypothetical universalism...” (Joel R. Beeke and Mark Jones, A Puritan Theology: Doctrine for Life [Grand Rapids: Reformation Heritage Books, 2012], 360). Clearly Beeke is not aware of Charnock’s moderate Calvinism or his fondness for Amyraldian theology, even on the extent of Christ’s satisfaction.

April 17, 2009

Thomas Halyburton (1674–1712) Beseeching Sinners

We beseech you, in the name of all the glorious Trinity, to grant our demands. We are ambassadors for Christ, and God doth beseech you by us. God the Father and God the Son, and God the Holy Ghost, do all join in the supplication. Never were there such three names at a supplication, never such three hands at a petition. O sinners! what hearts have ye, if ye can refuse the desire, the supplication, the entreaties of a whole Trinity? All the love of the Father, all the grace of the Son, and all the blessings that are enjoyed by communion with the Holy Ghost, all plead with you for your compliance. Can ye refuse us, then, O sinners, O rocks, O hearts harder than rocks?
Thomas Halyburton, The Great Concern of Salvation (Philadelphia: Printed by William Marshall, 1801), 281.


HT: Maurice Roberts

Also in Robert's article "The Free Offer of the Gospel," Banner of Truth 503–504 (August–September 2005): 44.

April 16, 2009

Experience Mayhew's (1673–1758) Dualism and Appeal to Twisse

Now that which I here intend is this, That Mankind have, since their Fall into a State of Sin and Death, had so much done for them, in order to their Recovery out of that miserable Estate, as thereby to be put into a State of Salvability: For otherwise there would be no Room for an Offer of Salvation to be made to them. Now Mankind, since their Apostacy, may be conceived to be in a salvable Condition in two Respects, or on a two-fold Account. (1) In Respect of the Sufficiency of God to find out and provide a Way for their Salvation, whatever seeming Difficulties, in Respect of the Threatening denounced against Sinners, and of his own Truth and Justice, seemed to lie against it; yet this notwithstanding, I say, the Wisdom, Goodness, and Power of God was such, that it was, in that Respect, possible for him to find out and provide a Way, in which such Sinners as Mankind were, might be eternally saved. But this is not what I principally here intend. Wherefore, (2) Mankind may be said to be in a salvable State, in Respect of a Price already paid, or undertaken to be paid, for their Redemption. I say, either paid or undertaken to be paid, because this was the same Thing in Respect of the Efficacy of the Atonement I intend. It was as available, in Respect of all the saving Ends of it, before it was actually paid, as it was afterwards; and on this Account our Saviour is called the Lamb slain from the Foundation of the World. It is in Respect of this Price of Redemption, that I here affirm Mankind to be in a salvable Estate. They are so now, in Respect of a Price already paid for them, in order to their eternal Happiness. And this I suppose to be a Truth, with Respect to all Mankind without Exception: So that though there are many who never will be saved, yet the Reason of this is not, because there is not a sufficient Price paid for their Redemption, nor because this is not a Remedy applicable to them, according to the Tenor of the new Covenant, but for other Reasons hereafter to be mentioned.

This State of Salvability, which Mankind are by me supposed to be in, has its Rise and Foundation, as I have said, in the Price of Redemption paid for them, by their great Saviour; and that this was of sufficient Value to save the whole World I here take for granted. That it was a Price laid down for all, without Exception; and, according to the Tenor of the new Covenant, applicable to any one, and to every one of the sinful Children of Men, I suppose to be a Truth clearly revealed in the Word of God; and that the Reason why it is not so generally believed so to be, is not because it is not sufficiently asserted in Scripture, but because many have, without sufficient Grounds, supposed that a Belief of this cannot be reconciled to some other Articles of Faith, which they think clearly and fully revealed: But this I shall have Occassion hereafter to consider.

At present I will show, what is in Scripture affirmed, with Respect to the Extent of Christ's Death, with Relation to the End and Object of it. And here, not to insist on what is said about his mediatorial Righteousness, in Rom. Chap. 5. betwixt the 12th and the 19th Verses, where his Righteousness is opposed to the Sin of the First Adam, as a sufficient Remendy against the Mischiefs and Miseries brought on Mankind by it; I shall only recite some of those Passages of Scripture, wherein the Universality of Christ's Death, as it respects the Persons for whom he died, seems to be plainly and fully asserted. Thus we are told, that God so loved the World, that he gave his only begotten Son, that whosoever believeth in him, should not perish, but have everlasting Life, John 3. 16. That he is the Propitiation for our Sins: And not for our's only, but for the Sins of the whole World, 1 John 2. 2. That he tasted Death for every Man, Heb. 2. 9. That he gave himself a Ransom for all, 1 Tim. 2. 6. That he died for all, 2 Cor. 5. 14, 15. And that he is the Saviour of all Men, especially of those that believe, 1 Tim. 4. 10.

That the most obvious Sense of these Texts of Scripture, is, That Jesus Christ died for all Men without Exception, I think very evident. Nor is it at our Liberty to recede from this, without some urgent Necessity compelling us to it, which I suppose can never be shown; but instead thereof, I will show a Necessity of taking of them in the full Latitude in which they are expressed. I do not therefore wonder, that there have been a great many eminent Divines, in the English Nation, who have been far from being Arminians, that have plainly and fully asserted Christ's dying for all, as I could easily manifest, did I rely on human Authorities, as I do not.

Yet I shall mention one Instance of this, not so much on the Account of the Authority of the Man (though I know of no Man whose Authority would go farther in this Case) as because I think he fairly states wherein the Difference lies betwixt himself and some others, and particularly betwixt what he held and I now hold, and consequently wherein the Crisis of this Controvery does, in my Apprehension, lie.

The Person I intend is the learned Dr. Twisse: And the Book from which I shall take some Passages, is entitled, The Riches of God's Love to the Vessels of Mercy, &c. Part 1. Page 5. "We are often demanded," saith he, "whether every one that heareth the Gospel be not bound to believe that Christ died for him? Now I say this Phrase, Christ died for me, includes many Things, as the Benefits which arise unto me by the Death of Christ, may be conceived to be many. But let these Benefits be distinguished, and we shall readily answer to the Question made, and that perhaps differently, as namely, affirmatively to some, negatively to others; as thus, Do you speak of Christ's dying for me, that is, for the Pardon of my Sins, and for the Salvation of my Soul, I answer affirmatively and say, I am bound to believe that Christ died for the procuring of these Benefits unto me, in such Manner as God hath ordained; to wit, not absolutely but conditionally, to wit, in Case I do believe and repent. For God hath not otherwise ordained, that I should reap the Benefits of Pardon and Salvation, by virtue of Christ's Death and Passion, unless I believe in him and repent."

In another Place, this learned Author asserting the Death of Christ in the same Latitude and Extent, saith, (Page 154) "To die for us, or for all, is to die for our Benefit, or for the Benefit of all: Now these Benefits are of a different Nature, whereof some are bestowed upon Man only conditionally (though for Christ's Sake) and they are the Pardon of Sin and the Salvation of the Soul, and these God does confer only upon the Condition of Faith and Repentance. Now I am ready to profess and that, I suppose, as out of the Mouth of all our Divines, That every one who hears the Gospel, (without Distinction between Elect and Reprobate) is bound to believe that Christ died for him, so far as to procure both the Pardon of his Sins and the Salvation of his Soul, in Case he believes and repents." In another Place he saith, That as "Peter could not have been saved, unless he had believed and repented; so Judas might have been saved, if he had done so." And the Doctor referring to that Text, John 3. 16. saith on it, That "it gives a fair Light of Exposition to those Places where Christ is said to have died for the Sins of the World, yea, of the whole World, to wit, in this Manner, That whosoever believeth in him, should not perish, but have everlasting Life."

Thus far I have Dr. Twisse fully with me in what I assert, viz. That Christ died for all Men, so far forth as to purchase Life and Salvation for them, in Case they believe in him, and repent of their Sins. He did this for the whole World, and not for the Elect only: So there is no Man but what may be saved on the Terms of the new Covenant, even Judas was not excepted or excluded.

But here I must add a Word, lest this should be misunderstood. The Meaning of this Assertion is not, that it is a Truth, that Jesus Christ died for all Men, if it shall eventually come to pass that all Men believe in him, but that otherwise this Assertion is false. It is even now a Truth, that Christ died for all Men, or otherwise that he did not die for all Men. This cannot be made either true or false, by Men's future Carriages. The Meaning therefore of the Assertion maintained, is, that Jesus Christ has really so died for all Men, as to purchase this Advantage for them, that they shall be saved, if they will believe and repent.

It is not supposed in what is here maintained, that Jesus died equally, or in the same Sense, for all Mankind, Elect and Non-Elect. The Difference here is wide, and may, I think, be best conceived of, by a due Consideration of the Relation of Christ's Death to the two Covenants, to which it has a Reference: I mean that of Redemption betwixt the glorious Persons of the holy Trinity, and that of Grace (as it is commonly called) which God has been pleased to propose to Mankind since the Fall.

If we consider the Death of Christ, with Relation to the Covenant of Redemption, or Terms agreed on betwixt the Son of God on the one Part, (as I conceive) and the Father and the holy Spirit, on the other, though the Father be more expressly mentioned in Scripture, as concerned in this Covenant, than the holy Spirit: If, I say, we consider the Death of Christ, with Relation to this Covenant, the Son of God did, by his Death and mediatorial Righteousness, obtain for the Elect of God, or all those whom in Scripture the Father is said to have given him, a perfect and complete Salvation in all the Parts and Branches of it, the principal of which are enumerated in Rom. 8. 29. viz. Effectual Calling, Justification and Glorification: For in the Covenant here intended, Sinners themselves are not a Party; and therefore the Conditions to be performed lie not on them, but on the Mediator, who undertook for them, and fulfilled the Terms required of him, in order to the Salvation of those who were ordained to Life. None of these, therefore, ever miscarry, as might be plainly shown from Scripture, were it my present Business. Such as please may read and compare Isa. 53. 10, 11, 12. John 6. 38, 39, 40. Rom. 9. 29. Acts 23. 48. John 7. 37. and Chap. 10. 27, 28, 29. Hence the Acts of Christ's Mediation are spoken of, as having a peculiar Reference to these, in many Places of Scripture, as in John 17. ver. 6, 8, and 19, 20. and Chap. 10. 15. But such Places are not to be understood as if Christ died for the Elect only; for besides his absolutely mentioning the Salvation of all these, he was, according to the Covenant of Redemption which he entered into, to bring the Rest into a State of Salvability, that so God might be just in justifying any of them on the Terms of another Covenant, (that of Grace I intend) which was to be proposed to Sinners themselves, as plainly appears, in Rom. 3. 25, 26. with which that well agreeth, Heb. 9. 22. And upon Christ's doing this are grounded all the Offers of special Mercy made to Sinners in the Covenant of Grace, such as are implied in John 3. 16. Acts 10. 43. Mark 16. 15, 16. and Acts 16. 30, 31. And though Christ has by his Obedience and Death, purchased the Whole of the Salvation of all the Elect, so that the same is justly due to him; yet they cannot come to the Enjoyment of this Salvation, till they come up to the Terms of the Gospel, wherein it is conditionally offered to them. How God deals with those unto whom Gospel Terms are not offered, I am not here considering: But this I will venture to say, that I conceive them to be in a salvable State, so that if they are not saved, it is not because Justice will not allow of it. And I doubt not but that Jesus Christ was to bring the whole World into such a State as this, and not the Elect only.

And now let us consider the Death of Christ, as it has a Relation to the Covenant of Grace, proposed to Sinners themselves. Now as Christ's Death relates to this Covenant, no Man can plead a Right to the Benefits procured by it, till he believes in him that died for him; nor can he be put in Possession of the special Benefits offered in this Covenant, except he performs the Conditions of it. In this Respect Peter and Judas, Elect and Non-Elect, are on a Level. He that believeth shall be saved; he that believeth not shall be damned. As the mediatorial Righteousness of Christ is sufficient for the Salvation of the whole World, so it is, according to the Tenor of the new Covenant, a Remedy applicable to any Person, on the Terms therein proposed; so that it is not contrary to the Justice of God, effectually to call, justify, and glorify any Person whatsoever. If this is not done for all, it is not because there is not a sufficient Remedy provided, but for such other Reasons as are given in God's Word.

But now let us consider the Doctor's [Twisse] Antithesis, in the Place above quoted, Page 5. "If," saith he, "the Question be made, Whether I am bound to believe that Christ died for me, to procure Faith and Repentance for me, I do not say, that I am bound, or that every Man is bound to believe this." And a little below he saith, "I see a Reason manifesting that Christ merited not this for all, no not for all, and every one that hears the Gospel. For if he had, then he had merited it for them, absolutely, or conditionally, not absolutely, for then all, and every one should believe de facto, which is untrue; for the Apostle saith, (2 Thes. 3.) Fides non est omnium; nor conditionally, for what Condition, I pray, can be devised, upon the Performance whereof, God, for Christ's Sake, should give us Faith and Repentance." To this Demand I shall hereafter answer.

Thus, according to Dr. Twisse, though the Pardon of Men's Sins and the Salvation of their Souls were conditionally purchased for them by Jesus Christ, viz. on the Condition of Faith and Repentance, and this for all, without Exception; yet these Conditions were, by Jesus Christ, purchased only for the Elect, and are not offered unto Sinners, on any Condition whatsoever.

The latter Part of what he held I shall hereafter consider. That Christ died to obtain Salvation for all Men, on the Terms of the new Covenant, I now take for granted, at least suppose it to be a Truth: And all those for whom Christ thus died, I hold to be in a salvable Estate; otherwise, how are they beholden to Christ for thus dying them them?

And I would fain be plainly shewed how the Gospel can be preached to any Sinner for whom Christ thus died not? Or on what Foundation any Sinner can have Salvation offered to him, for whom it hath never been so much as conditionally obtained by Jesus Christ, in the sense allowed by Dr. Twisse, as above? May a Sinner be saved without having any Price of Redemption paid for him, in Case he believes? Or does this still remain to be done for him, if he should believe in Christ? Or may Salvation be fitly offered to him for whom Christ died not, on Condition of his believing, though it could not be given to him should he believe? Seeing God knows that it is not in his Power to believe, having no Object set before him, on which his Faith may be fixed, or any Eye to look to him, if there were, as is required in Isa. 45. 22. I may very seriously say, I know of no Kindness that can be shown in such an Offer, i.e. an Offer of Salvation made to Sinners that are not in a salvable State.

But Christ having died for all Men, to purchase Salvation for them, on the Terms expressed in a most gracious Covenant, well ordered in all Things and sure, there is then a Foundation laid for a Treaty of Peace and Reconciliation with sinful Men, on the Account of a Price of Redemption paid by Jesus Christ, as in Rom. 3. 24, 25, 26. where the Apostle having affirmed, that all have sinned and come short of the Glory of God, he adds, that we are justified freely by his Grace, through the Redemption that is in Jesus Christ: Whom God hath set forth to be a Propitiation through Faith in his Blood, to declare his Righteousness for the Remission of Sins that are past, through the Forbearance of God; to declare, I say, at this Time, his Righteousness, that God might be just and the Justifier of him that believeth in Jesus. In which Words we are assured, That it would not have stood with the Justice of God to have justified a Sinner, though a Believer, had not Christ been set forth, as in the Words expressed. And it will no more consist with the Justice of God to offer Salvation to a Sinner for whom Christ died not, than actually to save him without Christ's dying for him. And Salvation might have been as well offered to the whole World, if Christ had not died at all, as to any one Sinner for whom he died not.

How there has been a Foundation laid for the Salvation of sinful Men, or Way made for it, so that it may be done without any Injury to the Justice of God, or any other of his Attributes, yea, with great Honour to them all, has been now sufficiently declared. And the Reason why the Gospel is not preached, and Salvation offered to all Mankind, is not because all are not in a salvable State, or because there is not a Foundation laid in the Mediation of Christ for the Salvation of any Person or People in the World: So that there is no Sinner that has not committed the unpardonable Sin, who may not be invited to believe in the Son of God, and promised, that so doing, he shall be saved.
Experience Mayhew, Grace Defended (Boston: Printed by B. Green, and Company, for D. Henchman, in Cornhill, 1744), 40–47. Some of the spelling and language has been changed and/or modernized.


April 15, 2009

John Frame on Common Grace as Common Love

I mentioned earlier that unregenerate people are totally depraved but not necessarily as bad as they could be. What keeps them from the worst sins is God's common grace. Common grace is any blessing of God that does not save a person from sin. Theologians distinguish common grace from special grace, or saving grace. I don't know of any place in English translations of Scripture where grace is used this way; that word almost always refers to redemptive blessing. So, I would prefer that this concept be called common love or common favor to avoid confusion. But common grace is the standard terminology at the moment.

God does restrain sinners, keeping them from doing all the evil that they would like to do (as in Gen. 4:15; 11:6; 20:6; 2 Kings 19:27-28; Job 1:12; 2:6). The result is that unbelievers, unregenerate people, often do things that are good in a sense (2 Kings 10:29, 31; 12:2; Luke 6:33; 11:13). This goodness is a relative goodness, compared with other things that these people might be doing. It is not good in the fullest sense, which involves the right goal, standard, and motive, but it is good in that the deed externally conforms to Scripture and is somehow helpful to society rather than harmful (hence the term civic righteousness). Scripture even speaks of gifts of the Holy Spirit given to people who are ultimately lost (Heb. 6:4-8). Judas preached Christ and worked miracles in his name (Matt. 10:1-42).

So, total depravity does not mean that unbelievers can do no good in any sense. What it does mean is that apart from grace they cannot please God (Rom. 8:8).
John M. Frame, Salvation Belongs to the Lord: An Introduction to Systematic Theology (Phillipsburg, NJ: P&R Publishing, 2006), 112–113.

April 14, 2009

More from George Swinnock (1627–1673) on God's Tenders and Offers

Now the Son of the ever blessed God tendereth himself to thee with many entreaties, goeth after thee up and down, night and day, knocking at the door of thine heart, with all his graces, comforts, and fruits of his death, by the ministry of his word, the motions of his Spirit, multitudes of temporal and spiritual mercies; but thou, unworthy wretch, slightest both him and his precious attendants, and esteemest thy shop and stock, thy corn and carnal comforts, far before him; but when thou shalt see what a weight of glory, what rivers of pleasures, others enjoy through the Saviour, and thyself feel more torment and pain than thou canst now possibly think or fear, for want of a Saviour, surely thou wilt have other manner of thoughts of him than now thou hast.

It would be as much worth to thee as heaven now to know Jesus Christ and him crucified; but it will be the hell of thine hell to know him there. Oh how deeply it will cut thine heart with horror to think that that Christ, whom thou shalt see at his Father's right hand, waited on thee till his head was wet with the dew, and his locks with the drops of the night, called frequently and fervently after thee, Turn, turn, O sinner! why wilt thou die, and run thus upon thy ruin? And yet thou wert as deaf as an adder, and wouldst not hear the voice of that sweet charmer.

Fifthly, It will teach thee the preciousness of time. Eternity will learn thee the value of time, when in that long evening and night, which shall never have a morning, thou shalt remember and consider that thou hadst a day of grace. Oh thou wilt think, Time was when I had the tenders and offers of all that love and life, mercy and merits, heaven and happiness, of which yonder blessed souls are possessors; when mercy came kneeling to me for acceptance, grace came a-begging at the door of my heart for admittance, it followed me to be and board, abroad and at home, beseeching me for the love of God, for the sake of my poor soul, to turn from lying vanities to the living God. How often did the minister with many entreaties invite, exhort, beseech me to pity my dying soul, 2 Cor. vi. 1, to leave my damning sins, and heartily to embrace my loving Saviour with all speed, assuring me from the word of the eternal God that then was the only accepted time, then was the only day of salvation! But I despised and deferred all. I thought I had time enough before me, and woe, and alas, it is now too late; the sun of my life is set, the gate of mercy is shut; I did not work in my day, and now the things of my peace are for ever hid from mine eyes. Alas, alas! poor creature, what wilt thou so in such an hour?
George Swinnock, The Door of Salvation Opened by the Key of Regeneration, in The Works of George Swinnock, 5 vols. (Edinburgh: The Banner of Truth Trust, 1992), 5:140–141. See also p. 207 where Swinnock describes one sinner saying, “How did Jesus Christ himself with pardon and life come beseeching me, begging of me to open my heart and let him in; and yet, cursed wretch that I was, I denied him!”


April 9, 2009

Curt Daniel's Doctoral Thesis on Hyper-Calvinism and John Gill

Dr. Curt Daniel's doctoral dissertation, Hyper-Calvinism and John Gill, is now scanned and available for free download at EthOS (Electronic Thesis Online Service), or here (direct link). They just completed the scan and sent me an email notice. One of the benefits is that it is even a fully searchable pdf(s)! Unfortunately it comes in two files, but I was able to join them together using Adobe Acrobat.

EthOS also has Michael Horton's dissertation (or directly here) and Alan Clifford's dissertation (no longer available) scanned and ready for download. Soon they will have the dissertations of G. Michael Thomas and Sinclair Ferguson (or here: click on the "link to institutional repository") as well.

Update on 9-26-13:

You can also freely get Daniel's thesis here directly in two parts (click).

The Works of George Swinnock (1627-1673)

Volume 1 (Archive, Google)
Volume 2 (Archive, Google)
Volume 3 (Archive)
Volume 4 (Archive, Google)
Volume 5 (Archive, Google)

April 7, 2009

George Swinnock's (1627–1673) "Well Offered" Gospel

Having spoken in another treatise to this particular, I shall here only offer two or three things to thy serious thoughts, and proceed to a third exhortation.

1. Consider, what is offered thee, when the incomparable God is offered thee for thy portion. And truly, to explain this head fully, would require the pen, yea, exceed the skill, of an angel. None can tell what God is, but God himself. All the sheets in the explication of the doctrine speak somewhat of him, but not the thousand thousandth part of that excellency that is in him. Reader, I may tell thee, when God is offered thee, the greatest good that ever was, that ever will be; that ever can be, is offered thee; there never was, or can be, the like offered thee; more than heaven and earth, than both worlds, than millions of worlds, is offered thee. This God who is offered thee is the King of kings, the Lord of lords, the God of gods, the blessed and glorious potentate, the first cause, the original being, self-sufficient, all-sufficient, absolutely perfect, incapable of any addition or diminution. This God who is offered thee is the high and lofty One that inhabiteth eternity every moment, to whom a thousand years, yea, millions of ages, are but as one day, as one moment, whose duration is incapable of the least accession, who is boundless in his being, omnipotent in his power, unsearchable in his wisdom, inconceivable in his grace, and infinite in all his perfections. He dwelleth in that light that is inaccessible; before him angels, the highest of creatures, vail their faces; to him the whole creation is less than nothing, and vanity. This God who is offered thee made all things of nothing, supports all things, influenceth all things, and is all things, and infinitely more than all things. He is so needful a good that thou art undone without him. This was the misery of the heathen on earth, Eph. ii. 12, and of the damned in hell, Mat. xxv. 41, the very hell of hell. He is so plentiful a good that thou art perfectly happy in him. Ps. cxliv. 15, thou needest no more. He is the heaven of heavens, Ps. xvi. 11, the safest refuge. O friend, what dost thou think of having this God for thy portion? Is it not worth the while to have this God for thy God? wilt thou not say, 'Forasmuch as there is none like unto thee, O Lord; thou art great, and thy name is great: who would not fear thee, O king of nations'? Jer. x. 6, 7. Again, the God who is offered thee is the well of salvation, the Lord of life, the God of all consolation, a hive of sweetness, a paradise of pleasure, a heaven of joy. He is the richest grace, the dearest love, the surest friend, the highest honour, the vastest treasure, the exactest beauty, the chiefest good, and the fullest felicity. He is one that can enlarge and suit all thy faculties, relieve and answer all thy necessities, fill up and satisfy all the capacities of thy heaven-born soul. God is a good which Christ died to purchase for thee, Eph. ii. 13; 1 Pet. iii. 18. And surely if Christ thought him worth his blood, he is worthy of thine acceptance. God is a comprehensive universal good, not one, but all good; riches, honours, pleasures, friends, relations, health, life, earth, heaven, this world, the other world, all the good of both worlds, and infinitely more; and art thou not covetous of such wealth, that is better worth than both worlds? Phil. iv. 19; Ps. xxiii. 1; Gen. xvii. 1. God is an everlasting good, a good that will stand by thee, and abide with thee when all other good things shall fail thee, 1 Tim. vi. 7; Ps. lxxiii. 25. He is that good which thou wouldst have if thou art well in thy wits: he is that good which thou shouldst have if thou answerest the end of thy creation; he is that good which thou must have, if thou art not eternally miserable; he is the only suitable satisfying good, which hits the nature, and fits the desire of the rational creature. O reader, I say again, what dost thou think of having this incomparable God for thy God? Surely by this time thy heart may well melt into astonishment that he will allow thee to seek so matchless a portion. Well, what sayest thou to him? Is it not worth the while to have him for thine, to whom thou wilt call in the day of distress, to whom thou wilt cry in a dying hour, when thy soul stands quivering on thy lips, ready to take its flight into the unknown regions of the other world, when devils will be waiting to seize it, as soon as ever it leaves the body, to hale it to the unquenchable flames of hell, when thy friends and relations shall be weeping and wailing by thee, but unable to afford thy dying body the least cordial, or thy departing sould the least comfort? Ah, friend, what wilt thou do in such an hour, which is hastening on thee, without the incomparable God? Believe it, though thou mayest live without him, thou canst not die, without an infinite horror, without him. Is it not worth the while to have him for thine, to whom thou must stand or fall for ever, from whose mouth thy sentence of eternal absolution or condemnation must come, and who shall judge thee to thine unchangeable state of life or death? Though thou mayest think thou canst do well enough at this day with the world for thy portion; yet what wilt thou do at that day, when the world shall be in a flame, if God be not thy portion? Art thou willing or not, to have this God for thine? What sayest thou? Canst thou find in thine heart to deprive thy precious soul of such an inestimable treasure, and to leave it naked in the other world to the cruelty of devils, and the dreadful curses of the law? Methinks, though I have spoken little, yet I have said enough, to one that will but let his reason judge, to draw out thy most earnest desires after this incomparable God.

2. Consider upon what terms thou mayest have this God for thy God. You may possibly think that so boundless a good must cost you very dear, and the price must be vast of a pearl that is so matchless; but lo, to thy comfort, all the condition which God requireth of thee is only to accept him heartily and thankfully in his Son. Canst thou have anything cheaper? wouldst thou desire him in his terms to fall lower? nay, is it possible so to do, and make thee happy? Nor can he be thine unless thou receivest him for thine. It is a poor favour that is not worth acceptance. Do but take him for your happiness, and you shall have him for your happiness.

Thou givest more for thy bread, thy clothes, thy house, for the needful comforts that are for the support of thy frail body, than thou needest give for the great, glorious, incomprehensible, incomparable God. Thou payest money for them, but thou mayest have him without money and without price. One would think that the equity of the condition should both amaze thee and allure thee. Consider, I say, God doth not require of thee things impossible to thee; he does not say, If thou wilt remove mountains, dry up oceans, stop the course of nature, create worlds, I will then be thine, as great as I am; he doth not say, If thou wilt satisfy my justice, answer the demands of my law, merit my love and favour, then I will be thy God. No; he himself hath done all this for thee by the death of his Son; all he desireth is, that thou wouldst accept him in his Son for thy God. Nay, he doth not require of thee anything that is barbarous or cruel, as the heathen deities did, by the devil, of their worshippers. He doth not say, If you will lance and mangle your bodies, as Baal's priests did; if ye will go barefoot in sackcloth long and tedious pilgrimages, as the papists do; if ye will offer your children in the fire, and give the fruit of your bodies for the sins of your souls, as some did, then I will be your God. Again, he doth not require of thee things that are chargeable, to offer the best and chief of thy flock daily in the sacrifice to him; nor, as he once did of the young man, to sell all that thou hast, and give it to the poor; nor, as idolators, to lay down such a part of thy estate for thy portion; but he only requires that thou wouldst take the Lord for thy God; and wilt thou not do it? Canst thou deny him and thy poor soul so reasonable, so equitable a request? As the servant said to Nama, 'If the prophet had commanded thee some great thing, wouldst not thou have done it? how much more then when he only saith, Wash, and be clean?' So say I to thee; if God had commanded the greatest things imaginable, wouldst thou not to thy power have done them, that thou mightest enjoy the blessed God for thy eternal portion? how much more then when he only saith, 'Thou shalt have no other God before me'? O reader, do but observe that first command, which contains the sum both of thy duty and felicity, and thou art made, thou art a blessed man for ever. Take the true God in Jesus Christ for thy God, prize him as thy God, love him as thy God, honour him as thy God, and obey him as thy God, and he will be thy God for ever. Do but as much for the true God as the covetous man doth for his wealth, which is his god, as the intemperate man for his belly, which is his god; they give their highest esteem, their choicest affections, and their greatest service to that which they take for their god. And surely the true God is more worthy hereof, and will requite thee best for them.

3. Consider for what end God offereth himself to thee. I would not have thee mistake, because God out of his infinite pity to his miserable creatures, is instant and urgent with them to accept of him, to think therefore that God hath any need of thee, or seeketh his own happiness therein; I tell thee, if thou hadst no more need of God than he hath of thee, thou mayest let him alone. No; it is purely for thy good, for thy real and eternal good, that he offereth himself to thee; he needeth thy service no more than he doth the service of the damned, of the devils; and he knoweth how to make use of thee for his own glory, as he doth of them, if thou foolishly rejectest his offer of himself. Thy righteousness will not help him, Job xxii. 2, 3, nor thy wickedness hurt him, Job xxxv. 2. He offereth himself to thee, not that he may be blessed by thee, but that he may be bountiful to thee. It is thy good, not his own, that he looks at; the felicity of accepting him is thine own, and the misery of neglecting him is thine own, Prov. ix. 12. Men call customers to them, press them with many arguments and entreaties to buy, that they may enrich themselves by their customers; but God calls men to buy of him, not to enrich himself--he is as rich, and perfect and happy as he can be--but to enrich themselves; I counsel thee, saith Christ to his lukewarm church, to by of me gold. Why? that he may get somewhat by her, and enrich himself? No; that thou mayest be rich; that thou, not I, mayest be rich. Now, reader, ponder it seriously, it is wholly for thy own good, that thou mayest escape wrath and death, and attain heaven and life, that God is pleased once more to offer himself to thee. What is thy mind about his offer? Wilt thou have him for thy portion or no? Is there anything unreasonable in his desire or demands? Doth not thy eternal felicity depend on thine acceptance of him? What sayest thou? Wilt thou have God for thy portion, or wilt thou have the devil for thy portion? Thou shalt have eternal portion, good or bad. The worldlings portion of good things is but for this world, and the godly man's portion of evil things is but for this world; both have immortal souls, which will abide in the other world for ever; and their souls must have immortal portions to abide with them there for ever. Therefore, reader, consider what thou doest, either thou must take God, in and through Christ, for thy portion for ever, or hell and death and wrath and devils for thy portion for ever; one of the two is the portion of all the sons and daughters of Adam. If thou wilt still prefer the world before God, and love the creature above God, and please thy flesh more than God; when once thou appearest in the other word, God will rain on thee 'fire and brimestone, and a horrible tempest: this will be the portion of thy cup,' Ps. xi. 6. But if now thou acceptest him in his Son (for there is no making God thy friend but by Christ) for thy chiefest good and happiness, when all thy friends shall leave thee, and dearest relations forsake thee, yea, when 'thy flesh and thy heart shall fail thee, God will be the strength of thine heart, and thy portion for ever.' O friend, consider what I have said in this use, and the Lord give thee understanding, thou mayest know when thou are well offered, and be wise on this side [of] the other world."
George Swinnock, "The Incomparableness of God," in The Works of George Swinnock (Edinburgh: Banner of Truth, 1992), 4:493–497.


Note: Nathaniel Heywood (1633–1677), Oliver Heywood (1630–1702), Nathaniel Vincent (c.1639–1697), James Janeway (c.1636–1674), Joseph Alleine (1634–1668), Richard Alleine (1611–1681), John Rogers (c.1572–1636; in The Doctrine of Faith [1627], 90), Solomon Stoddard (1643–1729; in The Efficacy of the Fear of Hell [1713], 125), and Thomas Barnes (fl.1622–1626; in Sions Sweets [1624]) also, when speaking to the lost, tell them they are "well-offered" in the gospel.

April 6, 2009

Phil Johnson's Links, Hyper-Calvinism and My Inferences

Phil's bookmarks are posted HERE. He references several sites that he thinks are hyper-Calvinistic, and I would like to make some observations after his descriptions.
Protestant Reformed Church

There are some helpful, even excellent, resources linked here. I deliberated long and hard about whether to put this in the "Helpful Resources" category. The problem is that the PRC holds to an extreme Calvinism that denies God's common grace and the free offer of the gospel. This is a form of hyper-Calvinism, and is fraught with many dangerous ramifications. I could not with good conscience give it a thumbs up. Not a few people have written to ask how I could class a denomination that adheres to the Three Forms of Unity in this category. But the PRC's most distinctive feature—its utter denial of the gospel's free offer—is, after all, bad theology.
Notice that Phil associates the PRC with "a form of hyper-Calvinism." He says they deny "the free offer of the gospel." Actually, what they (Engelsma) really do is redefine the offer to be a bare presentation or proclamation. Phil has to know this. So, he would have to say that what they are really denying is the well-meant gospel offer (i.e. that God desires all men to be saved), which is the same as denying "the free offer." John Murray and Iain Murray certainly thought so. As John Murray and Ned B. Stonehouse observe, "It would appear that the real point in dispute in connection with the free offer of the gospel is whether it can properly be said that God desires the salvation of all men." See 'The Free Offer of the Gospel' in Collected Writings of John Murray (Edinburgh: Banner of Truth, 1982), vol. 4, pp. 113-32. Cited in Iain H. Murray, Spurgeon v. Hyper-Calvinism: The Battle for Gospel Preaching (Edinburgh: Banner of Truth Trust, 2000), 90.
Whosoever Will

These are Herman Hoeksema's writings on grace and the gospel call. His perspective on these issues amounts to a kind of hyper-Calvinism. He denies that the gospel invitation includes a bona fide offer of salvation to anyone but the elect. Hoeksema was brilliant, and a good writer. In fact, there is enough of real value here that I originally placed it in the "helpful" category. But the more I see of the fruits of this kind of thinking, the more convinced I am that it deserves to be plainly labeled as bad theology.
Again, Phil associates the theology of Herman Hoeksema with hyper-Calvinism. One of the things he points out is Hoeksema's denial that the gospel invitation includes "a bona fide offer of salvation" to any of the non-elect, and says that this is "a kind of hyper-Calvinism."
Pristine Grace

That's an odd name for a site that is doing more to befoul and degrade the doctrines of grace than practically any other Web site I have seen. This is classic hyper-Calvinism of the most virulent kind, teaching that the gospel is not to be preached indiscriminately to unbelievers; insisting that faith in Christ as Savior is not the duty of all who hear the gospel; and denying that the gospel message contains a well-meant offer of divine mercy to all who hear.

By the way, for an antidote to this site's historical revisionism about the doctrine of common grace, read Louis Berkhof or John Murray on the subject.
Notice that he talks about their denial "that the gospel message contains a well-meant offer of divine mercy to all who hear." Because of this and the other ingredients, their teaching constitutes "classic hyper-Calvinism of the most virulent kind."

If you couple all of the above comments together with the contents of Phil's Primer on Hyper-Calvinism, with his comments on the Theology List, and with footnote #20 from God Without Mood Swings, how can Phil consistently say that his Primer is not making a point about God's universal saving desire or will? How can he consistently say that denying God's universal saving desire is not a form of hyper-Calvinism since it is the same as denying the well-meant gospel offer? After all, John Murray and others (according to John Frame) apparently feared they were dealing with hyper-Calvinism when opposing Gordon Clark's denial of well-meant gospel offers.

On this very subject, Robert Reymond sides with Clark. How does it not follow that if one agrees with Reymond (A), they also agree with Clark (B), and are therefore hyper-Calvinists (C) when it comes to the issue of the free offer of the gospel? A implies (>) B implies (>) C. It's not as though any of these men denied that one should preach to all men. As Iain Murray notes (and Curt Daniel agrees), "Hyper-Calvinists accepted that the gospel be preached to all..." What they are against is well-meant gospel offers given from God to any of the non-elect, which is to say that they explicitly denied that God desires the salvation of any of the non-elect. This is precisely what James White does, but adds scorn and the mockery of others to his explicit denials as well. To Mr. White, we, like Phil (speaking to other hyper-Calvinists), would simply say:
The root of your problem is that you apparently imagine a conflict would exist in the will of God if God, who has not ordained some men to salvation, nonetheless desires all men to repent and seek His mercy. That is, in fact, precisely the false dilemma virtually all hyper-Calvinists make for themselves. They cannot reconcile God's preceptive will with His decretive will, so they end up (usually) denying the sincerity of the preceptive will, or else denying that the pleading and calls to salvation apply to all who hear the gospel.

John Frame on God's Favor and Saving Desire

Favor can refer to a kindly disposition, or it can refer to advocacy, as in "I favor the Republican candidates." God never favors the wicked in the sense of advocating their purposes or desiring them to accomplish their goals. God does, however, have a kindly disposition toward all his creatures, as is plain in Psalm 145:9 and Matthew 5:43-48. These passages do not refer only to divine gifts; they also refer to the divine disposition underlying the gifts. And, as we have seen, God does have a genuine desire that the wicked be saved.
John Frame, Cornelius Van Til: An Analysis of His Thought (Phillipsburg, NJ: Presbyterian and Reformed Publishing, 1995), 229.

I have interacted with several people who fail to see this vital point. While they believe that God gives gifts that are good to all, they try to evade the point that Frame is making regarding God's own disposition in giving those gifts. They equivocate on the biblical teaching with respect to God's "goodness," as if it is only referencing the intrinsic quality of the things God gives, without it also pointing to the Father's loving disposition toward all. And, in connection with all of this, they are especially hostile to the idea that God desires all men to be saved.

John Frame on the Fear of Hyper-Calvinism During the Clark/Van Til Controversy

By "the conditional" Van Til means a "well-meant offer of salvation to a generality of men, including elect and non-elect." The free offer of the gospel was also a matter of debate between Hoeksema and his opponents. It was also discussed in the Clark controversy; evidently Clark was reluctant, during his theological examination, to accept the terminology of a "sincere" general gospel offer, recognizing that the terminology had been used by Arminians to oppose the Calvinistic view of election. The complainants feared that he was hyper-Calvinistic, denying the legitimacy of a general gospel offer. In my estimation, the reply of the Answer was sufficient. But the General Assembly's Report included a very useful analysis entitled "The Free Offer of the Gospel," authored by John Murray with some assistance from Ned B. Stonehouse.
John Frame, Cornelius Van Til: An Analysis of His Thought (Phillipsburg, NJ: Presbyterian and Reformed Publishing, 1995), 220–221.

Note: Clark clarified his reluctance to use the word “sincere” in “The Answer to a Complaint Against Several Actions and Decisions of the Presbytery of Philadelphia Taken in a Special Meeting Held on July 7, 1944,” pp. 38–39. Clark clearly rejects that God is “sincere” in the sense of giving a well-meant offer to the non-elect, so as to “sincerely” desire their salvation, but he admits that God is “sincere” in everything he does (ibid., 38). It is claimed that “Dr. Clark’s refusal to use such words springs from his desire not to be charged with Arminianism” (ibid., 39). Contrary to what Frame says, the Answer is not sufficient. Clark did not accept that God sincerely desires the salvation of all men (which is, as John Murray said, the key issue in the free offer debate), but only that he sincerely commands all men to repent and believe, and so sincerely shows them what he requires, or what is their duty, not that he sincerely loves them or sincerely wills their compliance. As Kuschke said, “Here lies the question at issue in our church. Some say that in His universal offer God does reveal Himself as truly desiring the salvation of all, although for His own wise and holy reasons He does not decree to bestow salvation upon all. Others have been reluctant to use the word “desire”; they say that God commands all men to come, but they question whether He in any way wills or desires that all should come.” See Arthur W. Kuschke, “Further Study of the Doctrines Committee Report: The Free Offer of the Gospel, and the Effect of Regeneration on the Intellect,” The Presbyterian Guardian 17.8 (May 10, 1948): 125. Also, in the Answer, Clark astonishingly acts as though he is in agreement with R. L. Dabney on the will of God in the common call (ibid., 39), when clearly that is not the case.

Robert K. Churchill describes the 1946–47 debate in the OPC on the incomprehensibility of God (with Gordon Clark) as involving “the practical side of the problem,” i.e. “the sincere offer of the gospel to all men.” He asked, “But how could we offer the gospel sincerely to all men if God had not?” He said they were “fighting hyper-Calvinism, a battle every Reformed Christian must fight sooner or later.” See Robert K. Churchill, “What Hath God Wrought!,” The Presbyterian Guardian 39.4 (September 1970): 60. See also what Churchill says about Clark's interpretation of Matt. 23:37.

April 5, 2009

On Humility: True and False

The Cyclopedia of Biblical, Theological and Ecclesiastical Literature (4:403–404) has an excellent and brief article on the subject of humility (click here to read).

Regarding false humility, the article states:
To consider this grace a little more particularly, it may be observed, 1. That humility does not oblige a man to wrong the truth or himself by entertaining a meaner or worse opinion of himself than he deserves. 2. Nor does it oblige a man, right or wrong, to give everybody else the preference to himself. A wise man cannot believe himself inferior to the ignorant multitude, nor the virtuous man that he is not so good as those whose lives are vicious. 3. Nor does it oblige a man to treat himself with contempt in his words or actions: it looks more like affectation than humility when a man says such things in his own dispraise as others know, or he himself believes, to be false; and it is plain also that this is often done merely as a bait to catch the praises of others.
I also liked this part of the article:
5. That the greatest promises of good are made to the humble (Isa. lvii, 15; lvi, 2; 1 Pet. v, 5; Psa. cxlvii, 6; Matt. v, 5)... It has been deemed a great paradox in Christianity that it makes humility the avenue to glory. Yet what other avenue is there to wisdom, or even to knowledge? Would you pick up precious truths, you must bend down to look for them. Everywhere the pearl of great price lies bedded in a shell which has no form or comeliness.

April 4, 2009

Names to Search

This is a list of names I am compiling of Calvinists (and others) from the sixteenth, seventeeth and eighteenth centuries, particularly the early Reformers and Puritans, that I will be researching. The long term goal is to examine all that they have said regarding God's revealed will and the atonement, in addition to other subject areas. I will be using the Internet Archive, Google Books and Early English Books Online (EEBO) to conduct these searches. When I have exhaustively searched an electronic book source, I will scratch it out (Archive, Google, EEBO). I have already searched for many of these names, but I will have to catch up on scratching them off later. I will also put a link to this post on the right hand side of my blog under "Links" (mainly for David) so that we may continually check our progress and possibly add/delete names. This list is also HERE, and it may be easier to read.

This list has about 3/4 or so of the names I have written down, but I have yet to check the 4 volume Oxford Encyclopedia of the Reformation for significant names. If you have a name to suggest, feel free to leave a comment and add to the list. I have already included most of the well-known Puritans, all of the Westminster divines and all of the 1689 London Baptist Confession divines. As you can see, this will be a massive and long term project.

George Abbott (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Robert Abbott (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Thomas Abernethie (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Theodorus à Brakel (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Wilhelmus à Brakel (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Richard Adams (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Thomas Adams (Archive, Google, EEBO)
L. Addison (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Mr. Aderster (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Benjamin Agas/Agus (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Henry Ainsworth (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Henry Airay/Airey (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Henry Albin (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Gilbert Alcock (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Thomas Aldrich (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Joseph Alleine (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Richard Alleine (Archive, Google, EEBO)
William Alleine (Archive, Google, EEBO)
John Allen (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Richard Allen (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Thomas Allen (Archive, Google, EEBO)
John Allison (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Vincent Alsop (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Johann Heinrich Alsted (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Hendrik Alting (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Henry Alvey (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Isaac Ambrose (Archive, Google, EEBO)
William Ames (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Lancelot Andrews/Andrewes (Archive, Google, EEBO)
John Angel (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Daniel Anglocrator (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Samuel Annesley (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Charles Archer (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Henry Archer (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Benedict Aretius (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Aristeus (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Timothy Armitage (Archive, Google, EEBO)
John Arrowsmith (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Simeon Ashe (Archive, Google, EEBO)
William Ashton (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Bartholomew Ashwood (Archive, Google, EEBO)
William Aspinwall (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Roberty Asty (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Robert Atkins/Adkins (Archive, Google, EEBO)
William Attersoll (Archive, Google, EEBO)
John Avery (Archive, Google, EEBO)
William Axton (Archive, Google, EEBO)

Gervase Babington (Archive, Google, EEBO)
John Bachelor/Bachiler/Batchiler/Bachilor (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Isaac Backus (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Richard Baker (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Johann Wilhelm Baier (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Cuthbert Bainbrigg (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Walter Balcanqual (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Thomas Baldwin (Archive, Google, EEBO)
John Bale (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Robert Baille (Archive, Google, EEBO)
John Ball (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Nathanael Ball (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Thomas Ball (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Robert Balsom (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Edward Barber (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Thomas Barber (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Praise-God Barebone (Archive, Google, EEBO)
John Barlow (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Thomas Barlow (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Richard Barnard (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Humphrey Barnet (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Barradius (Archive, Google, EEBO)
George Barret (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Mr. Barret (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Greg Barrow (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Reg Barrow (Archive, Google, EEBO)
John Bartlet (Archive, Google, EEBO)
William Bartlet (Archive, Google, EEBO)
John Bastwick (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Randal Bates (Archive, Google, EEBO)
William Bates (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Richard Bathurst (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Theophilus/Theodore Bathurst/Backhurst (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Sigmund Jacob Baumgarten (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Richard Baxter (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Lewis Bayly (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Robert Bayly/Baille/Baylie (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Thomas Bayly/Baylie (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Paul Bayne(s)/Baines (Archive, Google, EEBO)
John Beadle (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Nicholas Beard (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Thomas Beard (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Joseph Beaumont (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Johann Christoph Beck (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Sebastian Beck (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Thomas Becon (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Sebastian Benefield (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Bengel (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Robert Bennet/Bennett (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Barnaby Benison (Archive, Google, EEBO)
William Benn (Archive, Google, EEBO)
John Barnard (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Nathaniel Bernard (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Richard Bernard (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Mr. Bernhere (Archive, Google, EEBO)
John Beverly (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Theodore Beza/Beze (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Theodore Bibliander (Archive, Google, EEBO)
John Biddle (Archive, Google, EEBO)
John Billingsley (Archive, Google, EEBO)
John Bingham (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Hugh Binning (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Samuel Birch (Archive, Google, EEBO)
John Biscoe/Bisco (Archive, Google, EEBO)
John Bisterfeld (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Offspring Blackall (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Richard Blackerby (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Thomas Blake (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Samuel Blacklock (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Adam Blackman (Archive, Google, EEBO)
William Blackmore (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Christopher Blackwood (Archive, Google, EEBO)
David Blondel (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Bloomfield (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Samuel Blower (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Bogerman (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Mauritius Boheme/Bohemus (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Robert Bolton (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Samuel Bolton/Boulton (Archive, Google, EEBO)
John Bond (Archive, Google, EEBO)
William Bonham (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Abraham Booth (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Robert Booth (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Hugh Boothe (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Thomas Boston (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Nicholas Bound (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Immanuel Bourne (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Evan Bowen (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Oliver Bowles/Bowler (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Zachary Boyd (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Edward Boys (Archive, Google, EEBO)
John Boys (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Theophilus Bradbourn(e) (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Thomas Bradbury (Archive, Google, EEBO)
James Bradshaw (Archive, Google, EEBO)
William Bradshaw (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Mr. Bradstreet (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Bradwardine (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Edward Brayne (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Johann Jakob Breitinger (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Brentius/Brenz (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Thomas Brewer (Archive, Google, EEBO)
William Brewster (Archive, Google, EEBO)
William Bridge (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Mr. B. Bridger (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Edward Bright (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Francis Bright (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Daniel Brightman (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Thomas Brightman (Archive, Google, EEBO)
John Brin (Archive, Google, EEBO)
John Brinsley (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Mr. Brodet (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Mr. Broklesby (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Andrew Bromhall (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Thomas Brooks (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Hugh Broughton (Archive, Google, EEBO)
David Brown (Archive, Google, EEBO)
John Brown (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Nicholas Brown (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Robert Brown (Archive, Google, EEBO)
John Browning (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Ralph Brownrigg/Brownerigg/Brownrigge (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Robert Bruce (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Benjamin Brunning (Archive, Google, EEBO)
John Bryan (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Gulielmus Bucanus (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Martin Bucer (Archive, Google, EEBO)
George Buchanan (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Peter Bulkley/Bulkly (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Richard Buckley/Bulkley (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Daniel Bull (Archive, Google, EEBO)
George Bull (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Heinrich Bullinger (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Edmund Bunney (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Francis Bunney (Archive, Google, EEBO)
John Bunyan (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Mr. Burchell (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Anthony Burgess/Burgesse/Burges (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Cornelius Burges(s) (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Daniel Burgess (Archive, Google, EEBO)
John Burgess (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Edward Burghall (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Burgon (Archive, Google, EEBO)
William Burkitt (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Franz Burmann (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Gilbert Burnet(t) (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Aaron Burr (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Jonathan Burr (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Jeremiah/Jeremy Burroughs (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Henry Burton (Archive, Google, EEBO)
William Burton (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Edward Bury (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Ezekiel Bush (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Samuel Buttall (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Adoniram Byfield (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Nicholas Byfield (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Richard Byfield (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Mather Byles (Archive, Google, EEBO)

Benjamin Calamy (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Edward/Edmund Calamy (Archive, Google, EEBO)
David Calderwood (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Abraham Calovius (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Thomas Calvert (Archive, Google, EEBO)
John Calvin (Archive, Google, EEBO)
John Cameron (Archive, Google, EEBO)
John Canne (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Andrew Cant (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Richard Capel(l) (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Thomas Carew (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Donald Cargill (Archive, Google, EEBO)
George Carleton (Archive, Google, EEBO)
John Carter (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Thomas Carter (Archive, Google, EEBO)
William Carter (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Christopher Cartwright (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Thomas Cartwright (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Joseph Caryl/Carrill (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Thomas Case (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Robert Catlin (Archive, Google, EEBO)
William Cave (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Daniel Cawdrey (Archive, Google, EEBO)
John Cawdrey (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Palmer Cawdrey (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Robert Cawdrey (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Thomas Cawton (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Richard Cecil (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Lawrence Chad(d)erton (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Humphrey Chambers (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Edward Chapman (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Antoine de la Roche Chandieu (Archive, Google, EEBO)
William Charke (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Stephen Charnock (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Charles Chauncey (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Abraham Cheare (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Chemnitius (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Francis Cheynel(l)/Channell (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Nicholas Clagett (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Hugh Clark (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Peter Clark/Clerk (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Samuel Clark - 2 of them (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Matthew Clarke (Archive, Google, EEBO)
David Clarkson (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Lawrence Clarkson (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Richard Clayton/Cicyton (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Robert Cleaver (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Thomas Clendon (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Robert Clifton (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Thomas Cobbet (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Johannes Cocceius (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Francis Coke/Cooke (Archive, Google, EEBO)
William Cole (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Thomas Coleman (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Elisa Coles (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Thomas Collier (Archive, Google, EEBO)
John Collinges (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Hercules Collins (Archive, Google, EEBO)
William Collins (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Benjamin Colman (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Christopher Colman (Archive, Google, EEBO)
John Colquhoun (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Alexander Comrie (Archive, Google, EEBO)
John Conant (Archive, Google, EEBO)
William Cooper (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Michael Cope (Archive, Google, EEBO)
John Copping (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Edward Corbel (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Edward Corbet (Archive, Google, EEBO)
John Corbet (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Francis Cornwell (Archive, Google, EEBO)
George Coryat (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Florentius Costerus (Archive, Google, EEBO)
John Cotton (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Miles Coverdale (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Stanley Cower (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Benjamin Cox (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Richard Crackenthorp (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Samuel Cradock (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Walter Cradock (Archive, Google, EEBO)
John Craig (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Nicholas Crane (Archive, Google, EEBO)
James Cranford (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Thomas Cranmer (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Jean Crespin (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Richard Crick (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Tobias Crisp (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Ludwig Crocius (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Zachary Crofton (Archive, Google, EEBO)
John Crompton (Archive, Google, EEBO)
William Crompton (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Samuel Crook (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Robert Crosse (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Francis Crow (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Mr. Crowder (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Robert Crowley (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Georg Crucinger (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Alexander Cruden (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Timothy Cruso (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Ralph Cudworth (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Ezekiel Culverwell (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Nathaniel Culverwell (Archive, Google, EEBO)

Jean Daille (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Lambert Daneau (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Thomas Danson (Archive, Google, EEBO)
John Darrell (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Nicholas Darton (Archive, Google, EEBO)
John Davenant (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Mr. Davenish (Archive, Google, EEBO)
John Davenport (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Samuel Davies (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Richard Davis (Archive, Google, EEBO)
William Day (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Edward Deering (Archive, Google, EEBO)
William Dell (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Philip Delmy/Delrne/Delme (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Henry Denne (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Arthur Dent (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Nathan Denton (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Richard Denton (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Robert Derham (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Edward Dering (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Petrus DeWitte (Archive, Google, EEBO)
John Dick (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Jonathan Dickinson (Archive, Google, EEBO)
David Dickson (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Thomas Dillingham (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Robert Dingley (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Giocanni Diodati (Archive, Google, EEBO)
John Diodati (Archive, Google, EEBO)
John Dod (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Timothy Dod (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Philip Doddridge (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Johann Christoph Doederlein (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Thomas Doolittle (Archive, Google, EEBO)
John Doue (Archive, Google, EEBO)
James Douglas (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Robert Douglas (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Thomas Douglas (Archive, Google, EEBO)
George Downame (Archive, Google, EEBO)
John Downame (Archive, Google, EEBO)
John Downham (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Calibute Downing (Archive, Google, EEBO)
William Drewet (Archive, Google, EEBO)
William Dunning (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Henry Dunster (Archive, Google, EEBO)
John Durance (Archive, Google, EEBO)
John Durant (Archive, Google, EEBO)
James Durham (Archive, Google, EEBO)
John Dury/Durie/Drury (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Timothy Dwight (Archive, Google, EEBO)
William Dyer (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Daniel Dyke (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Jeremiah Dyke (Archive, Google, EEBO)

John Eaton (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Thomas Edmunds (Archive, Google, EEBO)
John Edwards (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Jonathan Edwards (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Thomas Edwards (Archive, Google, EEBO)
John Edwin (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Richard Eedes (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Stephen Egerton (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Daniel Bernard Eilshemius (Archive, Google, EEBO)
John Eliot/Elliot (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Edward Ellis (Archive, Google, EEBO)
John Elliston (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Edward Elton (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Nathaniel Emmons (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Samuel Endemann (Archive, Google, EEBO)
William Erbery (Archive, Google, EEBO)
John Erie/Erle (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Ebenezer Erskine (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Ralph Erskine (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Andreas Essenius (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Hugh Evans (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Mr. Evans (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Samuel Ewer (Archive, Google, EEBO)

Georg Fabricus (Archive, Google, EEBO)
William Facey (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Richard Fairclough (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Samuel Fairclough (Archive, Google, EEBO)
John Fairfax (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Thomas Fairfax (Archive, Google, EEBO)
William Falkner (Archive, Google, EEBO)
William Farel (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Thomas Farrar (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Christopher Feake (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Daniel Featley (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Guilliaume Felle (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Dudley Fenner (Archive, Google, EEBO)
William Fenner (Archive, Google, EEBO)
James Fergus(s)on (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Paulus Ferrius (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Ferus (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Humphrey Feun (Archive, Google, EEBO)
John Field (Archive, Google, EEBO)
William Fienes (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Daniel Finch (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Henry Finch (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Samuel Finley (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Giles Firmin (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Edward Fisher (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Samuel Fisher (Archive, Google, EEBO)
John Fisk (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Mr. Fits (Archive, Google, EEBO)
John Flavel (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Robert Fleming (Archive, Google, EEBO)
William Fleming (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Henry Flint (Archive, Google, EEBO)
John Forbes (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Thomas Ford (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Christopher Fowler (Archive, Google, EEBO)
G. Fox (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Timothy Fox (Archive, Google, EEBO)
John Foxcroft/Foxcraft (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Thomas Foxcroft (Archive, Google, EEBO)
John Foxe (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Thomas Foxley (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Aegidius Francken (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Theodorus Jacobus Frelinghuysen (Archive, Google, EEBO)
John Frewen (Archive, Google, EEBO)
John Frost (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Paul Fruin (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Jacobus Fruytier (Archive, Google, EEBO)
William Fulke (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Francis Fuller (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Thomas Fuller (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Mr. Fulwer (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Martin Fynch/Finch (Archive, Google, EEBO)

Theophilus Gale (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Hannibal Gammon (Archive, Google, EEBO)
John Garbrand (Archive, Google, EEBO)
John Gardiner (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Thomas Gataker/Gattaker/Gatakeri jr. & sr. (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Richard Gawton (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Allan Geare (Archive, Google, EEBO)
William Gearing (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Edward Gee (Archive, Google, EEBO)
John Gee (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Edward Gellibrand (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Henry Gellibrand (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Cornelius Gentman (Archive, Google, EEBO)
John Geree (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Stephen Geree (Archive, Google, EEBO)
George Gibbs/Gippes (Archive, Google, EEBO)
John Gibbon/Guibon (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Thomas Gibbons (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Mr. Gibson (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Samuel Gibson (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Andrew Gifford (Archive, Google, EEBO)
George Gifford (Archive, Google, EEBO)
John Gifford (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Thomas Gilbert (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Anthony Gilby/Gibbs (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Bernard Gilpin (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Richard Gilpin (Archive, Google, EEBO)
George Gillespie (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Patrick Gillespie (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Glass (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Edward Glover (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Thomas Goad (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Rudolph Goclenius (Archive, Google, EEBO)
William Good/Goad (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Christopher Goodman (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Philip Goodwin (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Thomas Goodwin (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Franciscus Gomarus (Archive, Google, EEBO)
James Goswell (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Robert Gouge (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Thomas Gouge (Archive, Google, EEBO)
William Gouge (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Stephen Goughe (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Stanley Gower (Archive, Google, EEBO)
John Graile (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Thomas Grantham (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Andrew Gray (Archive, Google, EEBO)
H. Gray (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Ashahel Green (Archive, Google, EEBO)
John Green/Greene (Archive, Google, EEBO)
William Green (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Richard Greenham (Archive, Google, EEBO)
William Greenhill (Archive, Google, EEBO)
John Greenwood (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Thomas Greshop (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Obadiah Grew (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Ritzius Lucas Grimersheim (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Theodorus van der Groe (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Alexander Gross (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Gryneus (Archive, Google, EEBO)
John Gumbleden (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Gryneus (Archive, Google, EEBO)
William Gurnall (Archive, Google, EEBO)
James Guthrie (Archive, Google, EEBO)
William Guthrie (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Rudolph Gwalther/Gualter (Archive, Google, EEBO)

John Hacket (Archive, Google, EEBO)
John Hales (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Henry Hall (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Joseph Hall (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Thomas Hall (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Berthold/Berchtold Haller (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Joseph Hallett (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Thomas Halyburton (Archive, Google, EEBO)
George Ham(m)ond (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Henry Hammond (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Samuel Hammond (Archive, Google, EEBO)
John Handson (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Jonathan Hanmer (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Thomas Hardcastle (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Humphrey Hardwick(e) (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Nathanael Hardy (Archive, Google, EEBO)
John Hardyman (Archive, Google, EEBO)
John Harris (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Robert Harris (Archive, Google, EEBO)
John Harrison (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Leonard Harrison (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Thomas Harrison (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Mr. Harsnet (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Adam Hartman (Archive, Google, EEBO)
John Harvard (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Richard Harvey (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Humphrey Harwick (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Richard Hawes (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Robert Hawkins (Archive, Google, EEBO)
William Hawkins (Archive, Google, EEBO)
John Hayden (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Thomas Hayne (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Thomas Helwisse (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Alexander Henderson (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Abraham Heidanus (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Johann Heinrich Heidegger (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Heinsius (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Abraham Hellenbroek (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Nicholas Hemminge (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Alexander Henderson (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Matthew Henry (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Philip Henry (Archive, Google, EEBO)
George Herbert (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Adam Heriot (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Charles Herle (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Richard Herrick/Heyrick (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Julines Herring (Archive, Google, EEBO)
William Herrington (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Ephraim Hewet (Archive, Google, EEBO)
John Hewitt (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Peter Heylyn (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Nathaniel Heywood (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Oliver Heywood (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Jasper(or)/Gasper Hickes (Archive, Google, EEBO)
John Hickes (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Henry Hickman (Archive, Google, EEBO)
William Hicks (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Samuel Hieron (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Francis Higginson (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Arthur Hildersam/Hildersham (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Samuel Hildersam/Hildersham (Archive, Google, EEBO)
John Hill (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Robert Hill (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Thomas Hill (Archive, Google, EEBO)
William Hinde (Archive, Google, EEBO)
James Hitt (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Peter Hobart (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Thomas Hodges (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Martin Holbeach/Holbech (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Francis Holcroft (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Dr. Holdisworth (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Richard Holdsworth/Oldsworth (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Matthew Hole (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Hezekiah Holland (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Thomas Holland (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Hollingsworth (Archive, Google, EEBO)
John Holmes (Archive, Google, EEBO)
John Hooke (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Thomas Hooker (Archive, Google, EEBO)
John Hooper (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Johannes Hoornbeeck (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Ezekiel Hopkins (Archive, Google, EEBO)
John Hopkins (Archive, Google, EEBO)
William Hopkins (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Johannes Hoornbeek (Archive, Google, EEBO)
John Horne (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Anthony Horneck (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Mr. Horrocks (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Johannus Jacobus Hottingerus (Archive, Google, EEBO)
John Howe (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Samuel Howe (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Joshua Hoyle (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Mr. Hubbard (Archive, Google, EEBO)
William Hubbock (Archive, Google, EEBO)
John Huckle (Archive, Google, EEBO)
George Hughes (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Obadiah Hughes (Archive, Google, EEBO)
John Hull (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Abraham Hume (Archive, Google, EEBO)
John Humpfrey (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Lawrence Humphrey (Archive, Google, EEBO)
George Huntley (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Henry Hurst (Archive, Google, EEBO)
George Hutcheson (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Henry Hutton (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Andrew/Andreas Hyperius (Archive, Google, EEBO)

Peter Ince (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Heinrich Isselburg (Archive, Google, EEBO)

Arthur Jackson (Archive, Google, EEBO)
John Jackson (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Henry Jacob (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Samuel Jacomb (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Thomas Jacomb (Archive, Google, EEBO)
John James (Archive, Google, EEBO)
John Angell James (Archive, Google, EEBO)
James Janeway (Archive, Google, )
John Janeway (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Cornelius Jansenius/Jansen (Archive, Google, EEBO)
William Jay (Archive, Google, EEBO)
William Jeffery (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Mr. Jeffryes (Archive, Google, EEBO)
John Jemmet (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Mr. Jenkin (Archive, Google, EEBO)
William Jenkyn (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Dr. Jenningson (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Henry Jessey/Jessy (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Constantine Jessop (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Malancthon Jewel (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Thomas Jollie (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Edward Johnson (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Francis Johnson (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Robert Johnson (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Archibald Johnston (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Robert Johnston (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Franciscus Junius/du Jon (Archive, Google, EEBO)

Benjamin Keach (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Elias Keach (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Bartaeus/Barthaeus Keckermann (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Mr. Kendel (Archive, Google, EEBO)
William Kent (Archive, Google, EEBO)
John Kettlewell (Archive, Google, EEBO)
John Kid (Archive, Google, EEBO)
William Kiffin (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Andrew King (Archive, Google, EEBO)
John King (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Andrew Kingsmill (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Stephen Kis/Szegedinus (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Georg Christian Knapp (Archive, Google, EEBO)
John Knewstubs (Archive, Google, EEBO)
David Knibbe (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Mr. Knight (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Robert Knight (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Hansard Knollys (Archive, Google, EEBO)
John Knox (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Hans Conrad Koch (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Jacobus Koelman (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Francis Kolb (Archive, Google, EEBO)

Edward Lake (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Isaac Lamb (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Thomas Lamb (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Friedrich Adolph Lampe (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Mr. Lancaster (Archive, Google, EEBO)
William Lance (Archive, Google, EEBO)
John Langley (Archive, Google, EEBO)
John Langston (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Thomas Larkham (Archive, Google, EEBO)
L'Arroque (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Jean de L'Espine (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Lampe (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Lapide (Archive, Google, EEBO)
John Lathorp (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Hugh Latimer (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Ludwig/Lewes/Louis Lavater (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Edward Lawrence/Laurence (Archive, Google, EEBO)
George Lawrence (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Le Clerc (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Edward Leigh (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Mr. Leigh (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Alexander Leighton (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Robert Leighton (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Ralph Lever (Archive, Google, EEBO)
John Levert (Archive, Google, EEBO)
John Ley (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Melchoir Leydekker (Archive, Google, EEBO)
John Lightfoot (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Edmund Littleton (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Morgan Lloyd (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Herbert Lockyer (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Jodocus van Lodenstein (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Edward Lord (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Mr. Lowth (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Christopher Love (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Richard Love (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Sibrandus Lubbertus (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Henry Lukin (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Martin Luther (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Thomas Lydiat (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Thomas Lye (Archive, Google, EEBO)
William Lyford (Archive, Google, EEBO)

Johannes Maccovius (Archive, Google, EEBO)
John Machin (Archive, Google, EEBO)
William Madstard (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Maldonatus (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Thomas Mallory (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Edward Man (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Robert Mandevill (Archive, Google, EEBO)
William Manning (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Thomas Manton (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Edward Marbury (Archive, Google, EEBO)
John de la March (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Johannes Marckius (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Samuel Maresius (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Augustine Marlorate (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Ralph Marsden (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Stephen Marshal(l) (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Steven Marshall (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Walter Marshal(l) (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Matthias/Mattiuas Martinius (Archive, Google, EEBO)
William Massam (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Petrus/Peter van Mastricht (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Cotton Mather (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Increase Mather (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Richard Mather (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Samuel Mather (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Robert Maton (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Marmaduke Matthews (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Richard Maunsel (Archive, Google, EEBO)
John Maverick (Archive, Google, EEBO)
John Mayer (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Wolfgang Mayer (Archive, Google, EEBO)
John Maynard (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Richard Mayo (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Matthew Mead (Archive, Google, EEBO)
John Meadows (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Joseph Mede (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Gregorious Mees (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Philip Melancthon (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Francis Merbury (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Peter Merlin (Archive, Google, EEBO)
William Mew (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Thomas Micklethwait(e) (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Mr. Midgley (Archive, Google, EEBO)
John Milbourne (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Mr. Millain (Archive, Google, EEBO)
John Milton (Archive, Google, EEBO)
John Milward (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Thomas Mocket (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Bernhard de Moor (Archive, Google, EEBO)
John Moore (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Robert Moore (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Samuel Moore (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Thomas Moore (Archive, Google, EEBO)
William Moore (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Henry More (Archive, Google, EEBO)
John More (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Stephen More (Archive, Google, EEBO)
William Moreton (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Ezekias Morley (Archive, Google, EEBO)
George Morley (Archive, Google, EEBO)
John Morton (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Richard Morton (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Peter Moulin (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Pierre du Moulin (Archive, Google, EEBO)
George Moxon (Archive, Google, EEBO)
John Murcot (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Wolfgang Musculus (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Robert M'Ward (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Oswald Myconius (Archive, Google, EEBO)

James Nalton (Archive, Google, EEBO)
John Nash (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Daniel Neal (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Benjamin Needler (Archive, Google, EEBO)
William Negus (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Christopher Ness (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Henry Newcome (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Matthew Newcome(n) (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Peter Newcome (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Thomas Newhouse (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Samuel Newman (Archive, Google, EEBO)
George Newton (Archive, Google, EEBO)
John Newton (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Ferdinando Nicholls/Nicolls (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Joseph Nicholls (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Josias Nichols (Archive, Google, EEBO)
William Nicholson (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Robert Nicolls (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Nifanius (Archive, Google, EEBO)
John Norden (Archive, Google, EEBO)
John Norman (Archive, Google, EEBO)
John Norton (Archive, Google, EEBO)
James Noyes (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Henry Nye (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Philip Nye (Archive, Google, EEBO)

Urian Oakes (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Henry Oasland/Osland (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Samuel Oates (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Titus Oates (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Oecolampadius (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Samuel Ogden (Archive, Google, EEBO)
John Oldfield (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Caspar/Kaspar Olevianus (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Olshausen (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Simon Oomius (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Job Orton (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Andreas Osiander (Archive, Google, EEBO)
John Owen (Archive, Google, EEBO)
William Owtram (Archive, Google, EEBO)
James Oxenbridge (Archive, Google, EEBO)

Thomas Pakeman (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Henry Page (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Ephraim Paget (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Eusebius Paget (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Thomas Paget (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Henry Painter (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Herbert Palemer (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Anthony Palmer (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Herbert Palmer (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Joseph Palmer (Archive, Google, EEBO)
David Paraeus (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Robert Parker/Park (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Thomas Parker (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Thomas Parson (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Nathanael Partridge (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Ralph Partridge (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Christopher Pashley/Parkley (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Thomas Patient (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Simon Patrick (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Thomas Peacock (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Edward Peal(e) (Archive, Google, EEBO)
John Pearon (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Edward Pearse (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Robert Peck (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Samuel Peck (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Abraham Peirson (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Conrad/Konrad Pelicanus/Pellikan (Archive, Google, EEBO)
William Pell (Archive, Google, EEBO)
William Pemble (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Henry Pendlebury (Archive, Google, EEBO)
William Perkins (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Ebenezer Pemberton (Archive, Google, EEBO)
William Pemble (Archive, Google, EEBO)
John Pendarves (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Dr. Penny (Archive, Google, EEBO)
John Penry (Archive, Google, EEBO)
William Perkins (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Andreas/Andrew Pern(e) (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Hugh Peters (Archive, Google, EEBO)
George Petter (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Samuel Petto (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Edward Philips (Archive, Google, EEBO)
George Philips (Archive, Google, EEBO)
John Philips/Phillips (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Peregrine Philips (Archive, Google, EEBO)
William Phipps (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Benjamin Pickering (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Benedict Pictet (Archive, Google, EEBO)
James Pilkington (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Abraham Pinchbecke (Archive, Google, EEBO)
William Pinchion (Archive, Google, EEBO)
John Piscator (Archive, Google, EEBO)
William Pinke (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Samuel de la Place (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Amandus Polanus von Polansdorf (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Edward Polhill (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Johann Poliander/Polyander (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Robert Pont (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Matthew Poole (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Edward Popocke (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Robert Porter (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Gabriel Powel (Archive, Google, EEBO)
William Powell (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Vavasor Powell (Archive, Google, EEBO)
John Poynter (Archive, Google, EEBO)
John Preston (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Christopher Price (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Edward Price (Archive, Google, EEBO)
John Price (Archive, Google, EEBO)
William Price (Archive, Google, EEBO)
William Prichard (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Humphrey Prideaux (Archive, Google, EEBO)
John Prideaux/Pritte (Archive, Google, EEBO)
John Prime (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Thomas Prince (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Nicholas Prophet/Proffet (Archive, Google, EEBO)
William Proudlove (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Richard Prowd (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Peter Prudden (Archive, Google, EEBO)
William Prynne (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Samuel Puffendorff (Archive, Google, EEBO)
John Pullain (Archive, Google, EEBO)
John Pym (Archive, Google, EEBO)
John Pyne (Archive, Google, EEBO)

Francis Quarles (Archive, Google, EEBO)
John Quick (Archive, Google, EEBO)

John Rainolds (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Henry Ramsden (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Peter Ramus (Archive, Google, EEBO)
John Randall (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Nathanael Ranew (Archive, Google, EEBO)
William Rathbone/Rathband (Archive, Google, EEBO)
John Rawlet (Archive, Google, EEBO)
William Raynor/Reyner (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Johann Reinbeck (Archive, Google, EEBO)
James Renwick (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Edward Reyner (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Edward Reynolds (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Christopher Richardson (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Richard Richardson (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Franciscus Ridderus (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Thomas Ridgley (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Nicholas Ridley (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Leonard Riissen (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Richard Ring (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Andreus Rivetus/Rivet (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Francis Roberts (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Hugh Robinson (Archive, Google, EEBO)
John Robinson (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Ralph Robinson (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Henry Roborough (Archive, Google, EEBO)
John Robotham/Rowbotham (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Edmund Rockrey (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Daniel Rogers (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Ezekiel Rogers (Archive, Google, EEBO)
John Rogers (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Nathaniel Rogers (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Richard Rogers (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Timothy Rogers (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Robert Rollock (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Thomas Rosewell (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Walter Rosewell (Archive, Google, EEBO)
James Rosier (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Richard Rothwell (Archive, Google, EEBO)
John Rowe (Archive, Google, EEBO)
John Rudd (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Nicholas Rush (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Samuel Rutherford (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Mark Rutimeyer (Archive, Google, EEBO)
John Ryther/Rither (Archive, Google, EEBO)

Guiljelmus Saldenus (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Mr. Salisbury (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Arthur Sallaway/Salway (Archive, Google, EEBO)
John Saltmarsh (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Arthur Salwey (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Henry Sampson (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Thomas Sampson (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Sanctius (Archive, Google, EEBO)
William Sandbrooke (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Mr. Sanderson (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Robert Sanderson/Saunderson (Archive, Google, EEBO)
William Sandes (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Gabriel Sangar (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Erasmus Sarcerius (Archive, Google, EEBO)
James Saurin (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Peter Saxton (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Stephen Scandrett (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Wilhelmus Schortinghuis (Archive, Google, EEBO)
William Sclater (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Thomas Scott (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Henry Scougal (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Patrick Scougal (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Henry Scudder (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Abraham Scultetus (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Lazarus Seaman (Archive, Google, EEBO)
John Sedgwick/Sedg(e)wick (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Obadiah Sedg(e)wick (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Richard Sedgwick (Archive, Google, EEBO)
John Selden (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Thomas Settle (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Samuel Sewall (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Johannus Scharpius/Sharpius/Sharp (Archive, Google, EEBO)
John Shaw (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Samuel Shaw (Archive, Google, EEBO)
John Sheffield/Sheffeild (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Sampson Sheffiield (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Richard Sheldon (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Thomas Shepard (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Thomas Shepherd (Archive, Google, EEBO)
John Sherman (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Roger Sherman (Archive, Google, EEBO)
William Sherwin (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Alexander Shields (Archive, Google, EEBO)
John Shower (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Josiah Shute (Archive, Google, EEBO)
John Shuttlewood (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Richard Sibb(e)s (Archive, Google, EEBO)
James Sicklemore (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Matthew Silvester (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Josias Simlerus/Simler (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Simon Simonides (Archive, Google, EEBO)
John Simpson (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Sydrach Simpson/Sympson (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Mr. Sims (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Samuel Skelton (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Samuel Slater (Archive, Google, EEBO)
John Sleidon/Sleidan (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Willem Sluiter (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Edmund Small (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Peter Smart (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Smectymnuss (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Brocket/Peter Smith (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Henry Smith (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Mr. Smith (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Samuel Smith (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Thomas Smith (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Bernardus Smytegelt (Archive, Google, EEBO)
John Smyth (Archive, Google, EEBO)
William Smyth (Archive, Google, EEBO)
William Smythhurst (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Edward Snape (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Lawrence Snelling (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Edward Sparke (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Mr. Sparrow (Archive, Google, EEBO)
John Spencer (Archive, Google, EEBO)
John Spilsbury (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Nathanael Spinckes (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Sprigge (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Gardiner Spring (Archive, Google, EEBO)
John Sprint (Archive, Google, EEBO)
William Spurstowe (Archive, Google, EEBO)
John Stalham (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Nicholas Standen (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Edmund Stanton/Staunton (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Johann Friedrich Stapfer (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Rowland Stedman (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Robert Steed (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Richard Steele (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Paul Stein (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Joseph Stennet (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Samuel Stennet (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Nathaniel Stephens (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Peter Sterry (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Nathaniel Stevens (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Andrew Stewart (Archive, Google, EEBO)
James Stewart (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Ezra Stiles (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Richard Stock (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Solomon Stoddard (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Samuel Stodden (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Samuel Stone (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Thomas Stone (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Thomas Stoughton (Archive, Google, EEBO)
John Strickland (Archive, Google, EEBO)
William Strong (Archive, Google, EEBO)
John Stroud (Archive, Google, EEBO)
John Stoughton (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Henry Stubbes/Stubbs (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Lewis Stuckley (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Sturm (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Matthias Styles (Archive, Google, EEBO)
William Styles (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Richard Sutton (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Thomas Sutton (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Jonathan Swift (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Henry Swinburne (Archive, Google, EEBO)
George Swinnock (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Cuthbert Sydenham (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Matthew Sylvester (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Zechariah Symes (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Patrick Symon (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Edward Symonds (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Joseph Symonds (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Mr. Symonds (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Sydrach Sympson (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Archibald Symson (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Patrick Symson (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Stephanus Szegedinus (Archive, Google, EEBO)

Jean Taffin (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Francis Tallents (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Philip Tandy (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Richard Taverner (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Edward Taylor (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Francis Taylor (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Jeremy Taylor (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Thomas Taylor (Archive, Google, EEBO)
William Taylor (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Willem Teelinck (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Thomas Temple (Archive, Google, EEBO)
William Temple (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Thomas Tenison (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Gilbert Tennet (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Theodorus (Archive, Google, EEBO)
David Thickpenny (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Tholuck (Archive, Google, EEBO)
William Thomas (Archive, Google, EEBO)
William Thompson (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Giles Thorne (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Thomas Thoroughgood/Thorowgood (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Job Throckmorton/Throgmorton (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Richard Tidmarsh (Archive, Google, EEBO)
John Tillotson (Archive, Google, EEBO)
John Tilsley (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Christopher Tisdale/Tesdale (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Tittman (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Toletus (Archive, Google, EEBO)
John Tombes (Archive, Google, EEBO)
John Tomkins (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Edward Topsell (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Paul Tossanus (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Robert Towne (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Henry Tozer (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Robert Traill (Archive, Google, EEBO)
John Trapp (Archive, Google, EEBO)
John Trask (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Walter Travers (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Lucas Trelcatius (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Immanuel Tremellius (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Gasper Olevian Trevir (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Francis Trigge (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Theodore Trochin (Archive, Google, EEBO)
George Trosse (Archive, Google, EEBO)
William Troughton (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Joseph Truman (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Anthony/Antony Tuckney (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Jerom Turner (Archive, Google, EEBO)
John Turner (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Stephen Turner (Archive, Google, EEBO)
William Turner (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Francis Turretin (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Jean Francois Turretin (Archive, Google, EEBO)
William Twisse/Tivisse (Archive, Google, EEBO)
William Tyndale (Archive, Google, EEBO)

John Udal/Udall (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Godefridus Udemans (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Mr. Udney (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Thomas Underdown (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Zacharias/Zachary Ursinus (Archive, Google, EEBO)
James Ussher (Archive, Google, EEBO)

Thomas Valentine (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Johannes VanderKemp (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Henry Vane - jr. & sr. (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Salomon Van Til (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Howel Vaughan (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Thomas Vaux (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Edward Veal/Veel (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Hermann Venema (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Ralph Venning (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Theodorus Verax (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Peter Martyr Vermigli (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Johan Verschuir (Archive, Google, EEBO)
John Vicars (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Blasius Viega/Viegas (Archive, Google, EEBO)
John Vincent (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Nathaniel Vincent (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Thomas Vincent (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Richard Vines (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Matthew/Mattieu Virel (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Matthieu Viret (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Pierre Viret (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Campegius Vitringa (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Gisbertus/Gisbert Voetius (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Vortius (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Gerthard Johann Voss/Vossius (Archive, Google, EEBO)

Benjamin Wadsworth (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Thomas Wadsworth (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Mr. Wainwright (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Arthur Wake (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Antonius Walaeus (Archive, Google, EEBO)
George Walker (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Thomas Wall (Archive, Google, EEBO)
John Wallis (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Mr. Walsh (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Henry Walter (Archive, Google, EEBO)
John Walward (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Robert Walwyn (Archive, Google, EEBO)
John Ward (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Nathaniel Ward (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Richard Ward (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Samuel Ward (Archive, Google, EEBO)
John Warham (Archive, Google, EEBO)
John Warren (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Thomas Warren (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Archibald Warriston (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Thomas Watson (Archive, Google, EEBO)
James Webb (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Alexander Wedderburn (Archive, Google, EEBO)
James Weldy/Welby (Archive, Google, EEBO)
John Welsh (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Marcus Friedrich Wendelin (Archive, Google, EEBO)
John Wessel (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Thomas Westfield (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Henry Wharton (Archive, Google, EEBO)
William Whately (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Eleazar Wheelock (Archive, Google, EEBO)
John Wheelwright (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Benjamin Whichcote (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Francis Whidden/Whiddon (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Jeremiah Whitaker (Archive, Google, EEBO)
William Whitaker (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Edmond White (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Francis White (Archive, Google, EEBO)
John White (Archive, Google, EEBO)
David Whitehead (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Henry Whitfield (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Thomas Whitfield (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Samuel Whiting (Archive, Google, EEBO)
William Whittingham (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Alexander Whyte (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Giles Wigginton (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Michael Wigglesworth (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Thomas Wilcocks (Archive, Google, EEBO)
John Wilkins (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Henry Wilkinson jr. & sr. (Archive, Google, EEBO)
John Wilkinson (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Samuel Willard (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Toby Willes (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Andrew Willet/Wilet (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Daniel Williams (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Roger Williams (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Nicholas Williamson (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Thomas Willis (Archive, Google, EEBO)
John Wilson (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Thomas Wilson (Archive, Google, EEBO)
John Wincop (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Thomas Wincop (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Winer (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Thomas Winnel (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Edward Winslow (Archive, Google, EEBO)
John Winthrop (Archive, Google, EEBO)
George Withers (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Herman Witsius (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Petrus de Witte (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Perus Wittewrongel (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Johannes Casparus Wolfius (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Johannes Wollebius (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Lever Wood (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Ezekiel Woodward (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Francis Wookcock (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Giles Workman (Archive, Google, EEBO)
John Workman (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Anthony Wotton (Archive, Google, EEBO)
William Wrathband (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Christopher Wren (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Daniel Wright (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Robert Wright (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Percival Wyburn (Archive, Google, EEBO)
John Wycliff (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Andrew Wyke (Archive, Google, EEBO)
J. A. Wylie (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Thomas Wynell (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Daniel Wyttenbach (Archive, Google, EEBO)

John Yates (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Patrick Young (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Richard Young(e) (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Robert Young (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Thomas Young (Archive, Google, EEBO)

Jerome Zanchius/Zanchi (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Johann Zimmermann (Archive, Google, EEBO)
Ulrich Zwingli (Archive, Google, EEBO)